大五人格

最近在听一个英语节目的时候,了解了Five Factor Model (FFM), 中文是大五人格理论或者大五模型,研究者发现在不同的种族和文化中,都可以用五个维度来描述一个人的人格特质。这五个维度是:

(1)开放性(Openness to experience或intellect)
(2)责任感(Conscientiousness);
(3)外倾性(Extraversion)
(4)宜人性(Agreeableness)
(5)神经质(Neuroticism)

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五个维度的首字母缩写可以拼成OCEAN一词,所以大五人格又被称为人格的海洋。我个人感觉这个模型普及率并不高,连我这种对性格分类特别有兴趣的同学都第一次听说,而且有些漏洞。But,这个模型非常简单好用,简单的OCEAN单词,就能了解一个人的一些特质,Ta是否开放,是否有责任感,是否外向,是否随和,是否神经质,简直就是恋爱招工必评估的五个方面啊。

五个维度用表格形式展现为:
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如果你有兴趣,请继续阅读。各特质更详细描述如下:

(1)开放性(Openness to experience或intellect)
评估的是对经验本身的积极寻求和欣赏以及对不熟悉情境的容忍和探索。这个维度将那些好奇的、对新鲜物感兴趣的、新颖的、非传统的以及富有创造性的个体与那些循规蹈矩的、无分析能力的、不善于创造性思考的个体做比较。正面表现为对新鲜事物感兴趣, 尤其是对知识、各种艺术形式和非传统观念的赞赏。人们常常认为他们勤于思考,好幻想,知识丰富,富于创造性。负面表现为自我封闭,循规蹈矩,喜欢固定的生活和工作程式,不善于创造性的思考。
Sample items:
I have excellent ideas.
I am quick to understand things.
I use difficult words.
I am full of ideas.
I am not interested in abstractions. (reversed)
I do not have a good imagination. (reversed)
I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. (reversed)[35]

(2)责任感(Conscientiousness)
责任意识评估个体在目标导向行为上的组织、坚持和动机。这个子维度把可靠的、讲究的、有能力的个体和懒散的、行为不规范的个体作比较。同时反映个体自我控制的程度以及推迟需求满足的能力。正面表现为行为规范,可靠、有能力、有责任心。他们似乎总是能把事情做好,处处让人感到满意。负面表现为行为不规范,粗心,做事效率低,不可靠。
Sample items:
I am always prepared.
I pay attention to details.
I get chores done right away.
I like order.
I follow a schedule.
I am exacting in my work.
I leave my belongings around. (reversed)
I make a mess of things. (reversed)
I often forget to put things back in their proper place. (reversed)
I shirk my duties. (reversed)

(3)外倾性(Extraversion)
表示人际互动的数量和密度、对刺激的需要以及获得愉悦的能力。这个维度将健谈的、主动的、活泼的、趋于好运和乐观的个体与沉默的、严肃的、腼腆的、安静的人作对比。这个方面可由两个品质加以衡量:人际的卷入水平和活力水平。前者评估个体喜欢他人陪伴的程度,后者反映了个体个人的节奏和活力水平。外倾性正面表现为健谈,面部表情丰富,并喜欢做出各种姿势。他们果断,好交友,很活泼,富有幽默感,容易激动,好刺激,趋向于好动、乐观,负面表现为沉默寡言,呆滞。
Sample items:
I am the life of the party.
I don't mind being the center of attention.
I feel comfortable around people.
I start conversations.
I talk to a lot of different people at parties.
I don't talk a lot. (reversed)
I think a lot before I speak or act. (reversed)
I don't like to draw attention to myself. (reversed)
I am quiet around strangers. (reversed)
I have no intention of talking in large crowds. (reversed)

(4)宜人性(Agreeableness)
宜人性考察个体对其他人所持的态度,这些态度既包括善于为别人着想、富有同情心、信任他人、宽大、心软、直率,也包括充满敌对情绪、愤世嫉俗的、爱摆布人的、缺乏同情心。
Sample items:
I am interested in people.
I sympathize with others' feelings.
I have a soft heart.
I take time out for others.
I feel others' emotions.
I make people feel at ease.
I am not really interested in others. (reversed)
I insult people. (reversed)
I am not interested in other people's problems. (reversed)
I feel little concern for others. (reversed)

(5)神经质(Neuroticism)
评估的是情感的调节和情绪的不稳定性。情绪性高分的个体倾向于有心理压力、不现实的想法、过多的要求和难以控制冲动以及不适应的应对反应。虽然这个方面的高分并不预示着存在临床上的障碍,但患有临床综合症的个体往往会在这个量表上得高分。正面表现为情绪理性化,冷静,脾气温和,满足感,与别人相处愉快。负面表现为自我防卫,担忧,担心个体是否适应,往往容易情绪波动并易产生负面情绪如生气,自罪和厌恶感,还易于产生非理性的想法,在压力状况下比他人效果差。
Sample items:
I get irritated easily.
I get stressed out easily.
I get upset easily.
I have frequent mood swings.
I worry about things.
I am much more anxious than most people.[51]
I am relaxed most of the time. (reversed)
I seldom feel blue. (reversed)

如果你有兴趣用此模型分析自己的性格类型,点击此处,开始大五人格测试

参考资料:
Big Five personality traits https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_personality_traits
大五人格 http://thinking.bnu.edu.cn/Tcontent/scale/2013-01-03/104.html
OCEAN Considerations http://oaks.nvg.org/big-five.html
The Big Five 大五类人格测试 http://www.apesk.com/bigfive/

P.S. 我的得分表
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